Jainism (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/), traditionally known as the Jainasāsana or Jainadharma, belongs to the śramaṇa traditions and is one of the oldest Indian religions. It prescribes a path of nonviolence (ahimsa) towards all living beings. Practitioners believe nonviolence and self-control are the means to liberation. The three main principles of Jainism are nonviolence, non-absolutism (anekantavada) and non-possessiveness (aparigraha). Followers of Jainism take 5 major vows: nonviolence, not lying, not stealing (asteya), chastity, and non-attachment. Asceticism is thus a major focus of Jainism.
The word “Jain” derives from the Sanskrit word jina “victor”. A human being who has conquered all inner passions and achieved enlightenment is called a jina.
Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four jinas who were also teachers and revivers of the Jain path known as tirthankaras starting with Rishabha and concluding with Mahavira, who was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha.
In Mahayana Buddhism, bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for a being with bodhi (enlightenment). A bodhisattva is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which is a spontaneous wish to attain buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. A bodhisattva is one of the four sublime states a human can achieve in life (the others being an arhat, buddha or pratyekabuddha).
Usage of the term bodhisattva has evolved over time. In early Indian Buddhism, for example, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to Gautama Buddha in his former lives. The Jataka tales, which are the stories of the Buddha’s lives, depict the various attempts of the bodhisattva to embrace qualities like self-sacrifice and morality